Background: Chittagong is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh. It is a part of Chittagong Division. Chittagong is a metropolitan city and second largest city of Bangladesh and situated on the banks of the Karnaphuli River. Chittagong had been a sea port since the ancient time. Traders from different countries including Arab had business transactions with this port since 9th century. Sultan Fakruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340. After the defeat of Sultan Giasuddin Mahmud Shah by Sher Shah in 1538 AD, the Arakanise again captured Chittagong.The region was under the kingdom of Arakan during sixth and seventh centuries. During 17Th century, this region faced many attacks of Portuguese pirates. Before the Muslim conquered, Chittagong had been either under the control of the Arakans or under the kings of Burma. The Mughal Commander Bujurg Umed Khan expelled the Portuguese pirates from the region and eastablished Chittagong district in 1666 and named Islamabad. Next the region was named Chattla and Chandgaon. The Chittagong Hill-Tracts were separated from Chittagong in 1860. Cox’s Bazar was separated from Chittagong district in 1984 after the liberation of Bangladesh. Chittagong District is quite different from other districts for its unique natural beauty characterised by hills, rivers, sea, forests and valleys.
Geographic Area and Location: Chittagong District is bounded on the north by Tripura State of India, on the east by Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban Districts, on the south by Cox’s Bazar District and on the west by the Bay of Bengal, Feni and Noakhali Districts.The total area of the district is 5282.92 sq. km. (2039.74 sq. miles) of which 1700 sq. km. (456.37 sq. miles) including coastal area. The district lies between 21º54' and 22º59' north latitude and between 91º17' and 92º13' east longitude.
Annual Average Temperature and Rainfall: The annual average temperature of this district varies from maximum 32.5°C to minimum 13.5°C.The average rainfall is 3378 mm.
Administration: The area of Chittagong is 5282.92 Sq Km. It is also a divisional headquarter. The district consists of 14 upazila and 12 thana, 194 unions, 985 mauzas, 1267 villages, 1 city corporation, 41 city ward, city mahallah 207, 10 paurashavas, 90 wards and 199 mahallas. The upazilas are Anwara, Banskhali, Boalkhali, Chandanish, Fatikchari, Hathazari, Lohagara, Mirsharai, Patiya, Rangunia, Raujan, Sandwip, Satkania and Sitakunda. The thanas are Chandgaon, Chittagong Port, Double Mooring, Kotwali, Pahartali, Panchlaish, Bakalia, Bayejid Bostami, Patenga, Halishahar, Karnafuli and Khulshi.
Population: The total population of Chittagong district is 76,16,352 (Male- 38,38,854 and Female- 37,77,498), Sex ratio 102:100, Population Density 1442 sq. km. and annual growth rate is 1.40%.
Literacy: The Literacy Rate of Chittagong district is 58.90% (Male- 61.10% and Female- 56.70%). School attendance rate is 52.30% for 5 to 24 years age group.
Main Rivers: The Karnafuli, Halda and Sangu are the main rivers of this district.
Historical Events: The city was a Portuguese colony before falling under Mughal rule during the 16th and 17th centuries. An Islamic Preach Hazrat Badar Aawlia arrived in this city from the seas and chose Cheragi Pahar to live and started to spread the message of Islam among the locals More than six hundred years ago. It carries the history of revolutionary activities during the British Raj. During World War II, the British used Chittagong as an important military base for Allied forces. Masterda Surya Sen formed the secret Republican Army and he set up camps for revolutionary youths to train in guerilla here. On 24 September 1932, 8 young rebels led by Pritilata Waddedar attacked the European Club. During 1930-1932, 22 officials and 220 non- officials were killed by the revolutionarists in separate incidents.During the Liberation War of Bangladesh, Chittagong had some of the heaviest fighting with the Mukti Bahini attacking Pakistani navy ships and the Indian navy firing missiles at Pakistani naval installations. Chittagong Awami League leader M A Hannan and Liberation war hero Major Ziaur Rahman announced the declaration of independence on behalf of independence leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from Kalur Khat, Chittagong. Remarkable Personalities: Masterda Surjasen, Priti Lota Owadder, Abdul Karim Sahittobisharod, Principal Abul Quashem (Educationist), Koreshi Magon Thagure, Shah Muhammad Sagir, Mohakobi Alaol, Kalpana Datta, Sayad Owali Ullah (Novelist), Dr. Mohammad Yunus, Binodbihari Chowdhury, Jahur Ahmad Chowdhury, M A Hannan, M A Aziz, Subrder Rajab Ali (Hero of Shipahi Revoloution), Kajem Ali Master, Comorad Mozaffor Ahmad, Jatindra Mohon Sen, Martyred Nirmol Sen, Amibca Chattargy, Gonesh Ghosh, Abdul Hoque Dovas, Rafiq Uddin Shiddique, Brozen Sen, Sharat Kanungo, Kalipod Chattargy, Prof. Pulin Day, Amor Sen, Comored Abdus Satter, A K Khan, Chowdhury Harunur Rashid, Captain Abul Quashem, Shirajul Hoque Mia, Khanbahadur, Natun Chandra Shingha, Probal Chowdhury, Sujat Roy, Ayub Bacchu, Nakib Khan, Roby Chowdhury, Partha Barua, Akram Khan, Dr Keshob Sen, Dr Harihar Datta, Jotirmoye Chowdhury, Kabial Romesh Shil are remarkable personalities of this district. Famous Tourist Places: Fays Lake, Potenga Sea Beach, Chittagong Zoo, Chittagong University, Graveyard of Bayajid Bostami, Graveyard of Shah Amanat, War Cemetery, Zia Memorial Museum, Fauzdarhat Cadet College, Mahuri Project, Batali Hill, Chandranath Hill of Shitakunda, Hot Water Fall, Bashkhali Eco Park, Parky Sea Beach in Anowara, Bangladesh Military Academy, Marine Academy Chittagong Ethnological Museum etc. are famous tourist places of this district.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Bronze Statues (8th and 9th centuries), Fakira Mosque (Hathazari), Musa Khan Mosque (1658), Kura Katni Mosque (1806), Kala Mosque (16th century), Chhuti Khan Mosque (Mirsharai), Kadam Mobarak Mosque (1719), Andar Killah Mosque, Wali Khan Mosque (1790), Badar Awlia Dargah, Bakshi Hamid Mosque of Banshkhali (1568), Chittagong Court Building (1893), Ethnological Museum (1974) etc. are notable tourist places of this district.
Religious Institutions: The numbers of religious institutions of this district are Mosque 7021, Tomb 220, Temple 992, Church 126 and Pagoda 126.The most notable of which are Chuti Khan Mosque, Daulat Bibir Mosque, Mahadia Mosque, Noi Duari Mosque, Hamidullah Khan Mosque, Tomb of Shah Jadeh (R), Three domed Khan Mosque (Dohazari and Baghica Hat), Tombs of Hazrat Shah Amanat (R), Hazrat Bayazid Bostami (R), Mohsen Awlia, Goribullah Shah (R), Hajrat Shah Pir Awlia, Baro Awlia (Sitakunda), Miskin (R), Akbaria Jami Mosque, Nasrat Shah Jami Mosque, Jagannath Mandir (Abu Torab Bazar), World Peace Pagoda (Hathazari), Sitakunda Shankar Math, Dharmo Chakro Buddho Vihara, Koriya Nagar and Sonakania Buddho Viharas, Chandranath Temple Hill etc.
Educational Institutions: The numbers of educational institutions of this district are university 3, medical college 2, Bangladesh institute of technology 1, govt. college 14, non-govt. college 121, college of physical education 1, teachers training college 1, regional public administration institute 1, polytechnic institute 1, homeopathy college 2, nursing institute 1, forest research institute 1, veterinary college 1, home economics college 1, Bangladesh military academy 1, vocational institute 1, law college 2, art college 1, marine academy 1, marine fisheries academy 1, cadet college 1, madrasa 395, govt. secondary school 12, non-govt. secondary school 698, govt. primary school 1665, registered primary school 512, private (non-registered) primary school 208 and kindergarten school 1011.
Locally Published Newspapers and Periodicals: Locally published newspapers and periodicals of this district are Daily Azadi, Daily Purbokon, Daily Life, Daily Karnafuli, Weekly Chattala etc.
Main Crops: Paddy, betel leaf, potato, corn, turmeric, tea, peanut, mustard, patol (heap), brinjal, ginger, cucumber, vegetables etc. are main crops of this district.
Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, guava, coconut, betel nut, palm, litchi, banana, papaya, watermelon, lemon etc. are main fruits of this district.
Manufacturing Industries: Major Manufacturing Industries include Eastern Refinery, Pahartali Railway Workshops, Fouzi Flour mill, Jamuna Oil Company, Glaxo Welcome, Lever Brothers, KDS Garments etc.
NGO Activities: Operationally important NGOs are CARITAS, YMCA, BRAC, FPAB, NGO Forum for DWSS, UCEP, PROSHIKA, ASA, Nijera Kari, CODEC, Mamta, Love the Children Foundation, Sheba Shango, IMAGE, Chittagong Anti-drug Abuse Society, CWFP, Bita, Prottashi, Palli Progati Sangstha, Grammen Projukti Kendra, Bangladesh Samaj Unnayan Sangstha, SDI, Bangladesh Nari Pragati Sangha, Gana Unnayan Prachesta etc.
Economic Situation: The economy of Chittagong district is predominantly non-agricultural. Out of total 1,298,834 holdings of the district, 28.30% holdings are farms and remaining 71.70% are non-farms. Non-farm holdings largely depend on non-agricultural activities. Despite the growth of non-agriculture activities, the farm holdings also play an important role. Farm-holdings produce varieties of crops, namely, local and HYV rice, wheat, vegetables, spices, cash crops, pulses, oilseeds, maize and others. Various fruits like banana, jackfruits, guava, coconut, etc. are grown. Fishes of various species especially marine-species are abound in the district. Varieties of fish are caught from local rivers, tributary channels and creeks and from paddy fields during rainy seasons. Popular fresh water fish species are rui, katla, mrigale, kalabous, aier, ghania, shaol, boal, gulsha, kai, shing, magur, etc. In saline water hilsha, prawn and pangas fishes are caught. The district has plenty of marine fishery resources due to coast line of the Bay of Bangal. Crops, livestock, forestry and fishery are the main source of household income. Valuable timber and other forest trees also grow in this district.