Background, Geographic Area and Location: The district came into existence in 1916. Nothing is definitely known about the origin of the district name. It is said that a representative of Banglar Nawab named Badarjung had a Rang Mahal (meaning house of enjoyment) in this area. The other opinion is that the king of Kamrup had built a Rang Mahal in this aerea for amusement. This might be the origin of the district name to be Rangpur. The district is bounded on the north by Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat districts, on the east by Lalmanirhat, Kurigram and Gaibandha districts, on the south by Gaibandha and Dinajpur districts and on the west by Dinajpur and Nilphamari districts. The total area of the district is 2400.56 sq.km. (926.26 sq. miles) of which 15.95 sq.km. (6.16 sq. miles) is under forest. The district lies between 25º 18' and 25º 57' north latitudes and between 88º 56' and 89º 32' east longitudes.
Main Rivers: TISTA, Jamuneshwari, KARATOYA, Chikli and GHAGHAT.
About 80% area of the district is composed of alluvial soil of Tista basin and 20% Barind land.
Annual Average Temperature: Maximum 32.3°C, minimum 11.2°C; total rainfall 2931 mm.
Administration: Rangpur (Town) stands on the bank of the river Ghagat. The town was turned into a municipality in 1869. The district consists of 8 upazilas, 84 unions, 11191 mauzas, 1492 villages, 3 paurashavas, 33 wards and 197 mahallas. The upazilas are Badarganj, Gangachara, Kaunia, Mithapukur, Pirgacha, Pirganj, Rangpur Sadar and Taraganj.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Tajhat Rajbari, Keramatia Mosque, Dimlaraj Kali Mandir, Sree Sree Karunamaye Kali Mandir, Rangpur Museum, Rangpur Town Hall, Rangpur Public Library, Pareshnath Mandir at Mahiganj, tomb of the noted Islamic thinker Maulana Keramat Ali Jainpuri, tomb of Shah Jalal Bokheri at Mahiganj, tomb of Ismail Ghazi at Kataduar, CARMICHAEL COLLEGE Building, home stead of ROQUIAH SAKHAWAT HOSSAIN at Pairabandh, district Parishad Building, Takka Mosque at Latifpur (Mughal period, Mithapukur upazila), three domed Jami Mosque at Mithapukur (Mughal period), four domed Taraganj Mosque, nine domed Radhanagar (Badarganj upazila) Mosque (Mughal period), tomb of Kutub Shah at Kutubpur, Vhim Garh at Manshinghpur (Badarganj upazila), Zamindar Bari at Roypur (Pirganj upazila), remnants of the palace of Raja Nilambar at Patgram (Pirganj upazila), Hari Mandir at Chandan Hat (Gangachara upazila) and Mitha Pukur (excavated during the Mughal period).
Historical Events: Mansingh, commander of Emperor Akbar, conquered part of Rangpur in 1575. Rangpur came completely under the Mughal empire in 1686. Mughalbasa and Mughalhat of Kurigram district still bear marks of the Mughal rule in the region. During the Mughal rule Rangpur was under the sarker of Ghoraghat. Rangapur Ghoraghat has been mentioned in the Riyaz-us-Salatin. During the early period of the company rule FAKIR-SANNYASI RESISTANCE and peasant rebellion were held in Rangpur.
Marks of the War of Liberation: Mass killing site: Dahiganj Crematory, eastern side of the river Ghagat, Balar Dighi (near cantonment), Lahirir Hat (adjacent to Badarganj Road), place adjacent to Damdama Bridge (Mithapukur), Sahebganj, Nandiganj, Jharuar Beel (Badarganj), Damdama Bazar, back yard of the Jhenuk Cinema Hall (Badarganj); mass grave: Damdama Bridge, Damdama Bazar (Mithapukur), Angrar Bridge, Madarganj Bazar (Pirganj), Nandiganj (Rangpur Sadar).
Ethnic Nationals: Santal and Orao.
Main Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, onion, garlic, ginger, chilli and tobacco. Extinct or nearly extinct crops are linseed, sesame, indigo, kaun, aus paddy and arahar.
Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya and banana.
Traditional Transport: Palanquin (extinct), horse carriage and bullock cart (nearly extinct), boat.
Main Export Items: Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane, ginger, tobacco, mango and vegetables.