Background: Brahmanbaria is a district in east-central Bangladesh.It was formerly a sub-division of comilla district. Brahmanbaria got shape as a separate district on 5th February, 1984. Brahmanbaria literally means the place where Brahmins reside. It is believed that in the long past, an influential man namely Kazi Mohammad Khandkar was rehabilitated some ‘Brahman’ families in the present headquarters of the district. In consequence of which the distrct was named as Brahmanbaria.
Geographic Area and Location: Brahmanbaria district is a part of the Chittagong Division.It is surrounded on the north by Kishoreganj and Habiganj districts, on the east by India, on the south by Comilla district and on the west by Narsingdi, Narayanganj and Kishoreganj districts. It lies between 23°39’ and 24°16’ north latitudes and between 90°44’ and 91°51’ east longitudes. The total area of the district is 1,927.11 sq. km (726.00 sq. miles). Brahmanbaria town began to grow from the nineteenth century. The town was turned into a municipality in 1869. The tomb of Hazrat Syed Kazi Mahmud Shah (R) is located at Kazipara of the town. During the invasion of Munipur by the British in 1824, Brahmanbaria town was their military headquarters. The main business centres of the town are Ananda Bazar and Tanbazar. Other notable areas of the town are Jagatbazar, Mahabedab Patti, Kalaishreepara, Madhyapara, Kazipara and Kandhipara.
Temperature and Rainfall: The geography of the district is characterized by low-lying land with small hills and hillocks of red soil. Annual average temperature of the district is maximum 34.3°C and minimum 12.7°C.Total annunal rainfall is 2551 mm.
Main Rivers: Meghna and Titas, Buri and Haora are the main rivers of the district. Mehedi and Akashi are notable haors of Brahmanbaria district.
Cultural Heritage: Brahmanbaria district has a rich tradition of nurturing of art, education and culture. It is often called the cultural capital of Bangladesh. Ustad Allauddin Khan, the great musical talent of the sub continent and the father of 'Maihar Gharana' of classical Indian music was born in this district in 1862.Ustad Ayet Ali Khan established the Alauddin Music College in 1957 in Brahmanbaria and Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin established the Alauddin Sangitayan in 1975. Mohorshee Monomohan Dutta is also a remarkable name for his "Molaya" music. Sachin Dev Burman (better known as SD Burman) the renowned musician of the sub continent spent some time in Brahmanbaria. Umesh Chandra Roy was one of the greatest musicians of Alauddin Music institute.Other renowned musicians of the district are Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan, Ustad Abed Hussain Khan, Ustad Khadem Hussain Khan, Ustad Raja Hussain Khan, Amar Paul, Ustad Khurshid Khan, Ustad Subal Das and Ustad Afjalur Rahman.
Administration: Brahmanbaria zila, which was included in Comilla zila (formerly Tipera zila), was established in 1984. Before 1830 the Sarail Pargana was a part of Mymensingh zila. The zila consists of 9 upazilas, 100 unions, 900 mauzas, 1323 villages, 4 paurashavas, 39 wards and 109 mahallas. The upazilas are Akhaura, Ashuganj, Bancharampur, Bijoynagar, Brahmanbaria Sadar, Kasba, Nabinagar, Nasirnagar and Sarail.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Among the archaeological heritage and relics,Arphail Sagardighi Mosque,Twin Graves (sixteenth century, Sarail), Arphannesa Mosque (1662, Sarail), Bhadurghar Shahi Mosque (1084), Ulchapara Mosque (sixteenth century), tomb of Kalla Shahid (R, Akhaura), Kalbhairab Mandir (Brahmanbaria), Sree Sree Anandamoye Ashram (seventeenth century), Satidaha Mandir (Biddakut), Shiva Mandir (Natghar), Sarvadharma Samanya Mandir (Kalikachha), Jagannath Mandir (Nasirnagar), Bishnu Statue (Baghaura), Buddhist Viharas (Devgram), Kailaghar Jangal (Kasba), Hatir Pool (elephant bridge) at Baraiura, Zamindar Bari of Haripur, Basudeva Statue (Kalikachha), Nabinagar Math, Haraspur Zamindar Bari are notable.
Historical Events: Brahmanbaria was a part of Samatata Janapada of the ancient Bengal. The first and temporary capital of Isha Khan was at Sarail on the north of Brahmanbaria Town. When the Swadeshi Movement began in the wake of the partition of Bengal (1905), revolutionist Ullaskar Datta (Aviram) was convicted for throwing bomb explosion and was deported to the Andamans. During the 19th century, Brahmanbaria is proud of great nationalist leaders like Nawab Syed Shamsul Huda, who became president of All India Muslim League in 1921 and Barrister Abdur Rasul, a front ranking leader of Indian National Congress. On 14 December 1931 Suniti Chowdhury, Shanti Ghosh and Gopal Deb killed the then District magistrate CCB Stevens at his residence by gun shot.Upon encouragement of Oli Ahad, a pioneer Language Movement leader who hailed from Brahmanbaria, the movement obtained momentum in this district in 1952.Mostafa Kamal (Bir Sreshtho) obtained martyrdom in an encounter at Daruin of Akhaura during the War of Independence in 1971.
Marks of the War of Liberation:Mass graves and slaughter places are adjacent places to Pairtala Railway Bridge, west side of Judge Court, Kautali Wapda Office, west side of Asuganj Silo, west bank of Gangasagar Dighi (Akhaura), Asuganj Igmn Steamer Ghat, Lalpur Bazar, Shahbajpur Titas Bridge, Lakshmipur (Kasba) and Kella Pathar (Kasba).The famous memorial monuments are Shahid Smriti Shaudha (Faruki Park), Shaudha Hiranmaya (Kautali), Shahid Samadi Complex, Bijoy Statue (Asuganj), playground of Sarail Degree College and grave yard of Bir Shreshta Mustafa Kamal (Mogra).
Main Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, mustard seed, potato, onion, garlic, chilli, pulses, brinjal, kakrol and patal are the main crops of ths district. Extinct or nearly extinct crops are linseed, sesame, tobacco, chaplaish and arahar and kaun.
Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya, coconut, guava, olive, lemon, litchi, bilimbi and banana are the Brahmanbaria district.
Traditional Transport: Palanquin, horse carriage and bullock cart are traditional transport found in this district.
Natural Resources: Titas gas, Meghna gas and Saldandi gas fields are notable natural gas fields in this district.
Main Exports: Jute, paddy, mustard seed, vegetables, cotton fabrics, handicrafts, natural gas and leather.
Economic Situation: The economy of Brahmanbaria is predominantly agricultural. Out of total 465.720 holdings of the district 55.28% holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops namely local and HYV rice, wheat, vegetables, jute, spices, cash crops, pulses, oilseeds and others. Various fruits like banana, mango, jackfruit, coconut etc. are grown. Fish of different varieties are caught from rivers, tributary channels and even from paddy fields during rainy season.
The Titas Gas field is situated in the district. This natural gas plays very important role in the economy of Bangladesh. It has national importance in its widespread diversified use particularly in generating electricity, producing fertilizer and household fuel consumption.