Background: Barguna, the coastal district of Bangladesh was previously a sub-division of Patuakahali district which was upgraded to district in 1984. There are different opinions about the origin of the name of the district. The general belief is that in the remote past wood traders from the north had to wait at the place of present district headquarters for Baragun meaning big rope to pull their boats against strong current of the Khagdum River. In consequence of which the place become known as Barguna. It is believed that the district might have derived its name from the name of the place where its headquarters is located.
Area and Location: Barguna district is bounded on the north by Barisal, Jhalokati and Patuakhali districts, on the east by Patuakhali district, on the south by the Bay of Bengal and on the west by Pirojpur district and a part of Sundarbans under Bagerhat district. It lies between 21º48′ and 22º29′ north latitudes and between 89º52′ and 90º22′ east longitudes. The total area of the district is 1,831.31 sq.km. (707.07 sq.miles) of which 399.74 sq.km. is riverine and 97.18 sq.km. is under forest.
Temperature and Rainfall: The maximum and minimum temperature of Barguna district varies from 33.3°C to 12.1°C. The annual average rainfall of the district is recorded as 2506 mm.
Administration: Barguna thana was established at the end of the eighteenth century. It was elevated to sub-division in 1969 and the sub-division was upgraded to district in 1984. The district consists of 5 upazilas, 42 unions, 259 mauzas, 563 villages, 4 paurashavas, 36 wards and 50 mahallas. The name of the upazilas is Amtali, Bamna, Barguna Sadar, Betagi and Patharghata.
Township: Barguna Municipality was established in 1973. It was renamed as Barguna Paurashava in 1977. The Paurashava consists of 9 wards and 18 mahallas. The total area of the paurashava is 15.57 sq. km.
Marks of the war of Liberation: Mass graves of two locations, one near the district Jail and the other neat the Patharghata launch terminal which bear the testimony of the War of Liberation in Barguna district.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Bibichini Mosque at Betagi and the Buddhist temple and Buddhist Academy at Taltali are the important archaeological heritage and relics of this district.
Main Rivers: The Payra, Bishkhali, Khagdum and Baleshwar are the principal rivers flowing over Barguna district.
Main Crops: Rice, khesari, mung, mustard, chillies, sweet potato, potato, tobacco etc are main crops of this district.
Main Fruits: Betel nut, coconut banana,tal/palm, mango, black berries, date palm, wood apples, chalta, karamcha are main fruits of this district.
Transport: Palanquin, country boat and bullock cart were the main and traditional transports found in the rural area of Barguna district. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct. Now-a-days, all the upazilas are connected with the district headquarters with metaled roads. Bus, minibus, three wheelers ply over the district.
Economic Situation: The economy of Barguna district is predominantly agricultural. Out of total 2,01,929 holdings of the district, 71.93 % holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops namely local and HYV of rice, wheat, vegetables, spices, cash crops, pulses and others. Various fruits like mango, jackfruit, coconut, betel nut, banana etc are grown. Coconut and betel nut are grown abundantly in the district. Fish of different varieties abound in this district which enjoys the advantages of marine fishing. Moreover, varieties of fish are caught from rivers, tributaries, channels and even from paddy fields during the rainy season. Hilsa fish is abundantly available in the district.