Background: Dinajpur district is located in the northern part of Bangladesh. It is under Rangpur Division.The region was once a part of the ancient state of Pundrabardhana. The previous name of the region was ‘Gandowana Land’. It is one of the ancient districts during the beginning of British rule. After the eight years of the battle of Palashi, the British East India Company established administrative control of the region in 1765. By ending the Nababi rule of Ghoraghat, Dinajpur town formed day by day. According to Dinajpur Gazette, an independent collectoriate was established in Dinajpur in 1783. Formerly Dinajpur-Rangpur was a joint collectoriate. Due to administrative advantage, a new district Dinajpur was formed in 1786 and district headquarter was established in 1793. Thakurgaon and Panchagarh Sub-divisions of this district were turned into separate districts in 1984.
Geographic Area and Location: Dinajpur district is bordered by Thakurgaon and Panchagarh districts to the north, Joypurhat and Gaibandha districts to the south, Rangpur and Nilphamary districts to the east, West Bengal (Indian State) to the west. The total area of the district is 3437.98 sq.km (1327.41 sq. miles) of which 78.87 sq.km (30.45 sq. miles) is under forest. It lies between 25º10' and 26º04' north latitudes and between 88º23' and 89º18' east longitudes.
Annual Average Temperature and Rainfall: The Annual average temperature varies from highest 33.5 °C to lowest 10.5 °C.The annual rainfall 2,536mm.
Main Rivers: The Dhepa, Punarbhaba, Kanchan, Atrai, Eshamoti, Tangon, Choto Jamuna etc. are main rivers of this district.
Administration: Dinajpur district was established in 1786. There are 8 Paurashavas in Dinajpur named Ghoraghat, Birampur, Setabganj, Dinajpur, Hakimpur, Birganj, Fulbari and Parbatipur. The number of Upazilla in Dinajpur district is 13, named- Birampur, Birganj, Birol, Bochaganj, Chirirbandar, Chirirbandar, Dinajpur Sadar, Fulbari, Ghoraghat, Hakimpur, Kaharol, Khanshama, Nawabganj and Parbatipur containing 101 Unions, 1926 Mauzas and 2131 Villages.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Kantanagar Temple, Rajbari, Dinajpur Museum, Ramsagor Tank and the Tombs of Chehel Gazi and Gora Shahid, Sitar Kuthuri, Habra Zamindar Bari, Gour Gabindha, Baraduari, Shingha Darwaza Palace, Nayabad Mosque, Aowkar Mosque etc. are notable archaeological heritage and relics of this district.
Famous Tourist Places: Ramsagor, Shukh Sagor, Sapnapuri, Anyanda Sagor, Durbasagor, National Park, Kantazir Mondir, Sura Mosque, Graveyard of Chehel Gazi, Royal Palace, Shingha Duar Palace, Dauri Temple, Baro Pukuria Cole Mine, Power Plant, Moddhapara Hard Rock Mine, Suja Mosque, Setabgonj Suger Mill, Shitacot Buddhist Bihar, Dhakeshari Temple, Kaliya jue Temple, Gorashohid Boro-Moydan, Nayabad Mosque, Aowkora Mosque, Dinajpur Rajbari, Dipshikha School in Rudrapur, Hili Land Port, Shopnopuri Artificial Amusement Park, Nowpara Ideal Village, Ghughu-danga Zamindar Bari, Singra Forest, K. T Complex, Shita Coart Bihar etc.are famous tourist places of this district.
Historical Events: Dinajpur was once a part of the ancient state of Pundrabardhana. The British administrative control in Dinajpur was established in 1793. At the time of Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of greater Dinajpur district was included in West Bengal and it was named West Dinajpur. People of the district took part in the Tebhaga Movement and also had significant contribution in the War of Liberation.
Marks of War of Liberation: 4 mass killing site, 7 mass grave are testimony of war of liberation of this district.
Population: The total population of Dinajpur district is 29,90,128 (Male- 15,08,670 and Female- 14,81,458), sex ratio 102:100, population density 868.Sq. Km and annual growth rate is 1.22%.
Literacy: The literacy rate of Dinajpur district is 52.40% (Male- 55.70% and Female- 49.10%), school attendance rate is 56.70% for 5 to 24 years age group.
Locally Published Newspapers and Periodicals: Locally published newspapers and periodicals are the daily Uttara, Pratidin, Tista, Janamat, Uttarbanga, Ajker Protiva and Patralap and the weekly Atahpar and Ajker Barta.
Ethnic Nationals: The Saotal and Oraon are ethnic nationals of this district.
Educational Institutions: The number of educational institutions is university of science and technology 1, university college 2, homeopathy college 1, polytechnic institute 1, medical college 1, Atomic energy commission 1, government college 4, non-government college 91, non-government high school 636, government high school 6, junior school 27, government primary school 861, registered primary school 866, private primary school 25,vocational training institution 5, teachers training institution 1, institution of leather technology 1 and orphanage centre 2.
Cultural Organizations: The number of different cultural organizations rural club 583, public library 18, theatre group and opera party 17, cinema hall 16, playground 5, women's organisation 20, press club 3, Shilpakala Academy 1, literary organisation 17 and circus party 1.
Main Agricultural Crops: Litchi, mango, rice, wheat, sugarcane, jute, potato, vegetables, onion, ginger, oil seeds, banana, jack fruit, guava, coconut etc.are main agricultural crops of this district.
Mineral Resources: Coal mine at Barapukuria and hard rock mine at Madhyapara.
NGO Activities: Operationally important NGOs are CARE, BRAC, CARITAS, ASA, CCDB, Nijrera Kari and Thengamara Mahila Sabuj Sangha.
Health Centres: The numbers of health centres of this district are hospital and clinic 11, upazila health complex 13, union health an family planning centre 84, satellite clinic 15, community heath centre 13, NGO hospital 1 and veterinary hospital 1.
Economic Situation: The economy of Dinajpur is predominately agricultural. Out of total 662677 holdings of the zila, 59.15% holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops namely local and HYV paddy, sugarcane, wheat, vegetables, spices, jute, pulses, and other minor cereals. Various fruits like mango, banana, jackfruit, guava, coconut etc. are grown in the district. Almost all kinds of vegetables are cultivated particularly bitter guard (Karala), pumpkin (Misti Kumra), potato and Brinjals are abundantly grown. Pisiculture and rearing of livestock and poultry adds an additional income to the rural households. Fish of different varieties abound in this district. Moreover varieties of fish are caught from rivers, tributary channels, even from paddy field during rainy seasons. Some valuable timber and forest trees are grown in this district. Out of total 3437.98 sq. kms of the total area to the district, organized forestry is almost absent but riverine areas occupy about 19.45 sq. kms only.