Background, Geographic Area and Location: Sunamganj district was one of the sub-division of former Sylhet district. It emerged as a district on the 1st March, 1984. The district is full of haors and baors. Its headquarters is situated at the bank of the river Surma where a trading centre ( meaning ‘Ganj’) was developed in this area in the name of a Shipahi Sunamuddin, who foughat for the independence of the country in 1957. This might be the origin of the district name to be Sunamganj. It is bounded on the North by India, on the east by Sylhet district, on the south by Habiganj and Kishoreganj districts and on the west by Netrokona district. It lies between 24º 34' and 25º 12' north latitudes and between 90º 56' and 91º 49' East longitudes. The total area of the district is 3747.18 Sq. km. (1446.00 sq. miles) of which 71.28 sq. km. (27.52 sq. miles) are under forest.
Annual Average Temperature: Maximum 33.2°C and minimum 13.6°C; annual rainfall 3334 mm. There are many haors and beels in Sunamganj.
Administration: Sunamganj (Town) stands on the bank of the river Surma. It was established in late 18th century. Sunamganj mahakuma (sub-division) was upgraded to a district in 1984. The district consists of 11 upazilas, 87 unions, 1581 mauzas, 2782 villages, 4 paurashavas, 36 wards and 138 mahallas. The upazilas are Biswamvarpur, Chatak, Dakshin Sunamganj, Derai, Dharmapasha, Doarabazar, Jagannathpur, Jamalganj, Sulla, Sunamganj Sadar and Tahirpur.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Bagbari Tila (Chhatak upazila), Selbarash Jami Mosque, Sukhair Kalibari Temple, Kahala Kalibari, Maheshkhala Kalibari (Dharmapasha upazila), remnants of the palace of Raja Bijoy Singh (16th century, Tahirpur upazila).
Historical Events: Nankar Rebellion of Sukhair in 1922-23 is notable. Many political leaders and activists of Sunamganj were involved in the anti-British movement. The leftist movement spread over the district after the partition of 1947. During the WAR OF LIBERATION many encounters were held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army; Sunamganj was liberated on 6 December 1971.
In 1336 BS a devastating flood occurred as a result of breaking down a damn in Manipur. This flood is popularly known as 'White Water Flood'. A pernicious earthquake on 12 June 1897 caused heavy loss of lives and establishments.
Marks of War of Liberation: Mass killing site at Sreeramshi and Raniganj villages of Jagannathpur Upazila; mass grave and mass killing site at a place near the T&T Office of Derai Upazila; Sunamganj memorial; memorial plank with names of great martyrs engraved, memorial plank at Raniganj, Shikha Satera (Seventeen Flames) and the Central Memorial at Chhatak.
Religious Institutions: Palash Jami Mosque (Bishwamvarpur upazila), Makhraj Mosque, tomb of Baba Shah, temple of Jagannath Jeou (Derai upazila), Maddianagar Mosque, Selbarash Jami Mosque, Dharmapasha Jami Mosque, tomb of Nangta (nude) Pir, Kahala Kalibari, Maheshkhala Kali Mandir, Sukhair Kali Mandir (Dharmapasha upazila), Ikardai Jami Mosque, Vasudev Mandir (Jagannathpur upazila), Sreehail Sabbari Jami Mosque, Sree Sree Ramkrishna Gosai Akhra (1750), Bahra Sumeshwari Mandir (Sullah upazila), Pagla Jami Mosque, Patharia Baishnab Akhra (Sunamganj Sadar upazila), Tahirpur Jami Mosque, Badamghata Jami Mosque, mazar of Shah Arifin Saheb are notable.
Main Crop: Boro paddy.
Main Fruits: Mango, orange.
Mineral Resources: Natural gas, limestone and stone.
Main Exports: Paddy, fish, dry fish, orange, limestone, cement, paper pulp.