Background, Geographic Area and Location: Nilphamari district was one of the sub-division of Rangpur district. Nothing is definitely known about the origin of the district name. But it is said that the present place of the district was once prominent for Nil (Indigo) cultivation. A big Nil 'Khamar ' (meaning farm) was set up here, as such the area was called Nilkhamari. The present name of the district Nilphamari is the phonetic corruption of the original name Nilkhamari. The district is bounded on the north by India, on the east by Lalmonirhat and Rangpur districts, on the south by Rangpur and Dinajpur districts and on the west by Panchagarh and Dinajpur districts. The total area of the district is 1546.59 sq. km. (597.00 sq. miles) of which 33.54 sq. km. (12.95 sq. miles) is riverine and 6.26 sq. km (2.42 sq. miles) is under forest. The district lies between 25º 44' and 26º 19' north latitudes and between 88º 44' and 89º 12' East longitudes.
Annual Average Temperature: Maximum 32.3°C, minimum 11.2°C; annual rainfall 2931mm.
Main Rivers: Tista, Jamuneshwari, Chikni and Dhaigan.
Administration: The Nilphamari subdivision was established in 1875 and was turned into a district in 1984. The district consists of 6 upazilas, 61 unions, 355 mauzas, 361 villages, 4 paurashavas, 42 wards and 83 mahallas. The upazilas are Dimla, Domar, Jaldhaka, Kishoreganj, Nilphamari Sadar and Saidpur.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Birat Dighi (present name Nilsagar), Neel Kuthi (Nilphamari Sadar Upazila), Nat Settlement (prison, 1871), Saidpur Church (1893), Dimla Rajbari, Garh (Fort) of Raja Dharmapal and the remnants of his palace (eighteenth century, Jaldhaka), remnants of the palace of Raja Harish Chandra (Ninth century, Jaldhaka upazila), three domed Jami Mosque at Bherberi (eighteenth century, Kishoreganj upazila).
Historical Events: The TEBHAGA MOVEMENT spread over Domar and Dimla in the 1940s. In this movement the activist Tannarayan was shoot dead by the zamindar. Once indigo was cultivated extensively in this district. The Nilphamari region was under the Votmari Chauki during the British period. Later on the Chauki was transferred first to Shekherhat of Badarganj thana and then to Dokra of Domar thana.
Marks of the War of Liberation: Mass killing site 1, mass grave 8, memorial 1.
One of the biggest irrigation projects of the country, Tista Barrage Project, begins from Dalia of this district.
Main Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, tobacco, cotton and ginger. Extinct and nearly extinct crops are linseed, sesame, indigo, arahar, kaun, aus paddy and mustard seed.
Main Fruits: Jackfruit, mango, black berry, guava, litchi and banana.
Traditional Transport: PALANQUIN, horse carriage and bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Main Export Items: Paddy, jute, cotton, tobacco and ginger.