Background: Gaibandha was previously a subdivision of former greater Rangpur district. Nothing is definitely known about the origin of the distict name. There is hearsay that during the reign of Pancho Pandab, the present district headquarters was used for tying about 60,000 royal cows (meaning ‘Gai’ in Bengali) of the kingdom of Birat. The district might have originated its name as Gaibandha from the above word.
Geographic Area and Location: Gaibandha district is bounded on the north by Kurigram and Rangpur districts, on the south by Bogra district, on the east by Jamalpur, Kurigram districts and Brahmaputra river, on the west by Dinajpur and Rangpur districts. It lies between 25º02˝ and 25º39˝ north latitudes and between 89º11˝ and 89º46˝east longitudes. Total area of the district is 2179.27 sq km.
Admistration: Gaibandha district was established in 1984. The district consists of 7 upazilas, 82 unions, 1101 mauzas, 1250 villages, 3 paurashavas, 27 wards and 74 mahallas. The upazilas are Fulchari, Gaibandha Sadar, Gobindaganj, Palashbari, Sadullapur, Saghata and Sundarganj.
Historical Place: Vardhan Kuthi, Gobindaganj (17th century), house of Naldanga Zamindar along with its Shiva Linga made of black basalt, Vrisa Mandir of white stone and a large pond, Mosque of Shah Sultan Gazi at Mirer Bagan (1308), house of Bamandanga Zamindar, Mosque at Jamalpur, large pond at Faridpur, Masta Mosque at Gobindaganj are the historical places of this district.
Population: The district aggregate population is 23,79,255 of which males are 11,69,127 and famales are 12,10,128.
Literacy: Among population aged 7 years and over, the literacy rate of this district is 42.8% (Both male and female) in which male 46.3% and female 39.5%.
Climate: The climate of the district is moderate with equable temperature, high humidity and plenty of rainfall. The summer season commences in April and lasts up to June. The monsoon usually sets in early June and continues till the end of September. The winter season sets in early November and lasts up to the end of February. In the months of January and February relatively severe cold is experienced in the district due to its proximity to the Himalayan hills.The minimum and maximum mean annual temperature vary between 11.2°C and 32.3°C. During the monsoon the humidity is very high and remains high until December when it falls sharply to reach a low in February-March. Total annual rainfall of this district is 2931mm.
Main Crops: Paddy, tobacco, sugarcane, wheat, corn, potato, ground nut, mustard seed, tomato, onion, chilli, radish, cauliflower, cabbage and vegetables are main crops of this district.
Industry: There is one sugar mill, one cotton mill, 35 biscuit factories, 28 ice factories, one plastic pipe factory in this district.
Economic Situation: The economy of Gaibandha is predominantly agricultural. Out of total 581,289 holdings of the district, 56.21% holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops, namely, local and HYV paddy, sugarcane, wheat, vegetables, spices, jute, pulses, and other minor cereals. Various fruits like mango, banana, jackfruit, guava, coconut etc. are grown in the district. Almost all kinds of vegetables are cultivated particularly bitter guard (karala), pumpkin (misti kumra), potato and brinjal are abundantly grown. Pisciculture and rearing of livestock and poultry adds an additional income to the rural households. Fish of different varieties abound in this district. Moreover, varieties of fish are caught from rivers, tributary channels, even from paddy field during rainy seasons. Some valuable timber and forest trees are grown in this district.