Background, Geographic Area and Location: Naogaon was one of the sub-divisions of former Rajshahi district. It was up-grated to district on the 1st March, 1984. It is believed that the present district headquarters initially developed in a mauza comprising of nine (meaning ‘Nao’ in Bangla) villages (meaning ‘Gaon’ in Bangla). The district might have derived its name as Naogaon from the words ‘Nao’ and ‘Gaon’. The district is bounded on the north by India, on the east by Joypurhat and Bogra districts, on the south by Natore and Rajshahi districts and on the west by Nawabganj and India. The total area of the district is 3435.65 sq.km. (1326.00 sq.miles) of which 9.09 sq.km. (3.51) sq. miles) is reverine and 19.45 sq.km (7.51 sq. miles) is under forest. The district lies between 24º 32' and 25º 13' north latitudes and between 28º 23' and 89º 10' east longitudes.
Annual Average Temperature: Maximum 37.8°C and minimum 11.2°C; annual rainfall 1862 mm.
Main Rivers: ATRAI, PUNARBHABA, LITTLE JAMUNA, NAGAR, Chiri and Tulsi Ganga. Guta, Mansur and Dighali beels are notable.
Administration: Naogaon subdivision, under Rajshahi district, was established in 1877 and was turned into a district in 1984. The district consists of 11 upazilas, 99 unions, 2565 mauzas, 2854 villages, 3 paurashavas, 27 wards and 76 mahallas. The upazilas are Atrai, Badalgachi, Dhamoirhat, Manda, Mohadebpur, Naogaon Sadar, Niamatpur, Patnitala, Porsha, Raninagar and Shapahar.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Paharpur Buddhist Vihara, Jagaddal Vihara, Halud Vihara, Agrapuri Vihara.
Historical Events: Indigo rebellion (1859-62); peasant revolt against the zamindar in protest of increasing land revenue (1883).
Marks of War of Liberation: Mass grave 9; mass killing site 7, memorial sculpture 1, monument 1.
Ethnic Nationals: Mainly Santal, Oraon and Mahali.
Main Crops: Paddy, potato, watermelon, oil seeds, pulses. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Opium, indigo, aman and aus paddy, tobacco, vetch.
Fruit Production: Mango, jackfruit, banana, litchi, coconut.
Traditional Transport: Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, buffalo cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.