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Details of Jhenaidah District

Background: Jhenaidah was a former subdivision of Jessore district. It became a separate district in 1984. Nothing is definitely known about the district name. There is a hearsay that in the long past, the area became prominent for collection of Jhinuk from the river Nobagonga and burning (meaning Daha in Bengali) them for the production of calcium. The district might have derived its name as Jhinaidah from the above words. Jhinuk and Daha.

Geographic Area and Location: Jhenaidah is surrounded on the north by Kushtia and Rajbari districts, on the east by Magura district, on the south by Jessore district and on the west by Chuadanga district and India. The total area of the district is 1,964.77 sq.km (758.60 sq. miles). The district lies between 23º13` and 23º46` North latitudes and between 88º42` and 89º23` East longitudes.

Annual Average Temperature and Rainfall: The annual average temperature varies from maximum 37.1°C to minimum 11.2°C and the average annual rainfall 1467 mm.

Administration: Jhenaidah subdivision was established in 1862 and was turned into a district in 1984. The district consists of 6 upazilas, 67 unions, 945 mauzas, 1144 villages, 6 paurashavas, 54 wards and 136 mahallas. The upazilas are Harinakunda, Jhenaidah Sadar, Kaliganj, KotchandpurMoheshpur and Shailkupa.

Population: Total population of the district is 17, 71,304 (both male and female), among them total male is 8, 86,402 and female is 8, 84,902.

Literacy: Total literacy of this district is 48.4 %( both male and female), of them male is 50.5% female is 46.3.

Main Rivers: The Garai, Kumar, Nabaganga, Begabati, Chitra, Bairab, Kobadak, Kodla, Phatki, Kaliganga and Ichamati are the main rivers of this district.

Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Biswabat (Bethuli), Harihar Garh (Shailkupa), Shailkupa Jami Mosque, Ram Gopal Mandir (Shailkupa), Rani Mata Dighi, Sawdaghar Dighi and Mosque, Gorai Mosque, Jor Bangla Mosque, Galakata Dighi and Mosque, Cheragdani Dighi and Mosque, Dighi of Sree Ram Raja, Tombs of Ghazi, Dhol Samudra Dighi (Jhenaidah Sadar), Naldangha Rajbari and Mandir (Kaliganj), Manasa Mandir (Maheshpur), Sree Krishna Balaram Dev Bigraha Mandir (Kaliganj) are notable archaeological heritage and relics in this district.

Historical Events: Bara Bazar (ancient name Gangadighee) of Kaliganj upazila had been a famous port of India. It has been mentioned in the Greek history that in ancient time Prabal and Muslin used to be export from this port. In the 1860s, Indigo Resistance Movement spread all over this district. During the War of Liberation in 1971,some battles were confronted between Pak army and the freedom fighters at Mandartala (Kaliganj), Dulalmundia and Besaykhali (Jhenaidah Sadar) in which several members of the Pak army were killed. Jhenaidah was liberated on 6 December 1971.

Marks of War of Liberation: There are 7 mass graves, 3 mass killing sites in this district which is testimony of the war of liberation.

Main Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane and mustard seed, onion garlic and varieties of pulse and vegetables are the major crops of this district.

Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, banana, litchi, coconut, dates and palm are the main fruits of this district.

Main Export Items: Paddy, jute, banana, onion, garlic, betel leaf and date molasses are main export items of this district.

Economic Situation: The economy of Jhenaidah district is predominantly agricultural. Out of total 385,860 holdings of the district, 66.50 % holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops namely local and HYV paddy, jute, sugarcane, wheat, vegetables, spices, pulses, oilseeds and other minor crops. Various fruits like mango, banana, jackfruit, guava, coconut, etc are grown. Varieties of fish are caught from rivers, flowing channels and even from paddy fields during rainy seasons. Besides crops livestock and poultry, fishery and handloom spinning and weaving are the main sources of household income.